There are many mountainous areas in the west and in the north. The Xiangjiang River flows south to northwest; 296 m high Mt. Yuelushan is in the west; and Liuyanghe River (Liuyang River) and Laodaohe River (Laodao River) east.
Changsha has a monsoon climate within the sub-tropical zone, with annual average temperature being 16.8 to 17.2 degrees Celsius, 4.6 degrees Celsius in January and 28.6 degrees Celsius in July. Average annual precipitation is 1422 mm., and the yearly frost-free period is 275 days.The four seasons are distinct. Summer is long and broiling, with heavy rainfall, and autumn is comfortable with abundant sunlight. In winter, it is nearly rainless and not very cold, changing to rainy and wet weather with rapidly increasing temperatures in the spring.
The city's manufactures include metalwork, machinery, transport equipment, electric equipment and appliances, electronics, textiles, chemicals, plastics, and metal smelting. It also has lumber mills.
The tomb excavation site of Mawangdui found in the eastern suburb of the city is a family graveyard from that period.
The most fantastic historical relic should be the well-preserved mummified remains of a Western Han Dynasty woman excavated from the tombs. Some of thousands of relics unearthed include silk products, paintings, lacquer works, potteries, bamboo slips used for writing, weapons and herbs, all of which are exhibited in Hunan Provincial Museum .
What earns the city its reputation among tourists are two things. One is a great man in China's recent history, Chairman Mao Zedong and the other is Yuelu Academy, a time-honored academic school perched on the scenic Yuelu Mountain. Originally built in 976 during the Song Dynasty, the academy school survived through the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties and is considered to be the cradle of Huxiang Culture. (simply means the culture school in Hunan Province)
Liuyang is the biggest fireworks and fire-crackers producing area of China. The agriculture is developed here which abounds in producing rice, tea leaves, oranges, tangerines, rape, rapeseeds, peanut, day lily, live pig and fresh water fish etc.