Jilin Province has a varied landscape, generally sloping towards the northwest. With the Daheishan Mountain Range in the middle, the province is divided into two topographic regions: the mountainous area in the east and the plains of the midwest. The former is further divided into the Changbaishan Mountains and their foothills; and the latter can be divided into high plains in the middle, and grassy marshlands, lakes, ponds, and wet sandy soils in the west. The main mountain chains include the Daheishan Mountains, the Zhangguangcailing Range, the Jilinhadaling Range, the Laoling Range, and the Mudanling Range, etc. The main plains include the Songnen Plain and the Liaohe Plain, etc.
It has a population of 27,090,000.
Jilin has a northerly continental monsoon climate, with long, cold winters and short, warm summers. Average January temperatures range from -20 to -14 degrees Celsius. Rainfall averages at 350 to 1000 mm.
There are 49 ethnic groups in Jilin Province. Apart from Hans, the population of the 48 minorities of the province totals 2,453,400, accounting for 9.15% of the total population in the province. They mainly include Koreans, Mans, Mongols, Huis, and Xibos. With historically close ties and relationships, they have formed both ethnically based and inter-mixedpopulation centers.
Jilin Province is a significant center of forestry in China. The forest coverage rate of the whole province is as high as 42.5%. 89 mineral resources have been identified, among which 11 of them, such as oil shale, diatomite, tabular spar, cinder and so on have the largest reserve in China, and 41 of them including molybdenum, germanium and nickel rank the top ten in the country. One of the eight main pastoral areas in China, Jilin Province has a rich resource of grasslands. Widely and vastly distributed, the wetland in Jilin Province has varied types and enjoys a rich variety of bio-species. Jilin is situated in the upper and middle reaches of the main rivers in northeast China. The biological population in Jilin Province is healthy and diverse.
Changbaishan (Tall White Mountain) includes several highlights that will delight any visitor. There is the mountain itself, which is a nature preserve that has tigers, deer, black bears, leopards, and sable among the more than 200 varieties of wildlife that live in its original, undisturbed forests. On the very top of the mountain is Tianchi (Heavenly Lake). Another nature preserve in Jilin is Xianghai in Tongyu County. Interesting historical landmarks are also available in Jilin Province. One of the most famous is the General's Tomb. In Fu Yu County there is a stele monument called Deshengtuo.
There are many special local products in Jilin, in which, ginseng, pilose antler and marten fur are the most famous.