Shanxi has a population of 37.62 millions, with natural population growth controlled within 9 per thousand.
The largest ethnic group in Shanxi, the Han, account for 99.4 percent of the total population. The province also has 34 ethnic minority groups, including the Hui, Manchu, Mongolian, Korean and Tibetan, with 67,000 people. There are 58 villages where ethnic minority groups live in compact communities.
Shaanxi land produces a large quantity of nature¡¯s treasures and is endowed with rich resources. With in-depth development of the West, Shaanxi will become the nation's important juncture area for energy sources transportation, namely transport of gasses, supply of electricity and shipment of coal all from west to east.
Mineral resources: Currently reserves of 91 sorts of minerals are ascertained. The reserves of 58 sorts rank the top 10 throughout the country. 18 sorts such as coal, natural gas, molybdenum, mercury, gadolinite etc take the second or third place. Strontium, rhenium, cement rock and other nine sorts take the first.
The province has an area of 50,000 square kilometers that contains coal, the recoverable deposits of which are 161.8 billion tons. The Shenfu Coalfield in northern Shaanxi, which is being developed, has proved reserves of 134.9 billion tons of coal and few other coalfields for quality power like this one exist in the world. Northern Shaanxi Natural-gas Field has proved reserves of 350 billion cubic meters, being a wordclass continental self-contained natural gas field. The reserves of gold take the fifth place all over the country and the output ranks the fourth. The output of molybdenum concentrate accounts for one half of the nation.
Water resources: The province has 583 rivers with an annual runoff of 42.6 billion cubic eters. 14,000,000 kilowatts of waterpower storage are available. Through development over the years, 80,000 irrigation projects of various types have been constructed and 1,410,000 hectares of land are irrigated, accounting for 42% of total cultivated land.
Animal resources: The province has more than 750 species of wild vertebrates, which include 79 species of well-known rare ones. It is also the home of 12 species of animal such as giant pandas, golden-haired monkeys, clouded leopards, golden haired takings, which are national treasures under the state¡¯s priority protection, and ibises, which are rare birds in the world. The bred Qinchuan-cattle enjoy fame in the country and all over the world. The number of improved breed of milk goats tops the country and the breeding of boar goats is of quite scale.
From north to south, the climate belongs to semi-dry monsoon temperate zone, semi-wet and semi-dry monsoon warm temperate zone and moist monsoon sub-tropical zone respectively. Annual temperature and precipitation varies greatly with regions.
Yangrou Paomo (shreded cake in beef and mutton soup), Yulin Bean Curd, etc.
Qinqiang (Shaanxi Opera), Han Opera, Xintianyou (a kind of Shanxi local melody), and Yangge (popular rural folk dance), etc.
Shaanxi has well developed agriculture and stockbreeding. In agriculture, the main products are wheat, cotton, silk cocoon, and tobacco, while flax is the important cash crop. The main industries include coal, machinery, textile, electronics and chemistry, etc. The coal reserve here is among the top in the country.
Banpo Village Remains, the site of a 6000-year-old village which belongs to the Neolithic Age. In the capital city, Xian, you can see the City Wall, which was begun in the Han Dynasty, a century before the Christian era, and is now the largest and most well-preserved ancient wall, existing in China. Xian Forest of Stone Steles Museum boasts a largest collection of the stone tablets in China, 114 of which are engraved with 'classic' texts. In or near the city are 72 ancient tombs and remains, including the mausoleum of the Tang emperor Xuanyuan (the Yellow Emperor), who initiated Chinese civilization. There are many more ancient structures and temples such as the Big Goose Pagoda built in 652, Famen Temple, Bell Tower and the Drum Tower. The highlight of a Shaanxi tour for many visitors is the amazing Museum of Qin Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses who guard a site honored as the Eighth Great Wonder of the world. Shaanxi is also abundant in natural beauty beyond its rich historical legacy. As one of the five best-known mountains in China, Mt. Huashan, 120 kilometers (or 46 miles) east of Xian, is famous for its breath-taking cliffs and awe-inspiring landscape. The Hukou waterfall on Yellow River, the second biggest one in China, is very overbearing and magnificent. And Moutain Lishan and the nearby Huaqing Hot Springs are very attractive. Their beautiful legends will bring you into a moving love story between emperor Xuanyuan and a beauty named Yang Guifei.
Local products, such as pomegranate in Lintong, red date in Qingjian, Maojian tea in Ziyang all very famous, and the Tang Tricoloured glazed Pottery is also well-received by visitors.