Mainly relying on rainfall, the province's water resource is in scarcity, with only 520 cubic meters of water available for each of its residents, accounting for 18.8% of the national average of 2,770 cubic meters per head. A total of 128 varieties of minerals, 78% of that found in China, have been discovered in the Shandong province, of which 33 have their surveyed deposits listed among the top tens of the nation:
gold, natural sulphur and gypsum rank the first; petroleum, diamond, magnesite, cobalt, hafnium, and granite are the second; and kali salt, graphite, talc, bentonite, and limestone are the third. There are more than 3,100 varieties of plant, including 645 of wide cash, growing in the province. One of China's major agricultural production bases,
Shandong is known as "a warehouse of grains, cotton, and oil, and the land of fruits and aquatic products." The province is one of China's important energy bases, with Shengli Oilfield being the second largest of its kind in the country, and Zhongyuan, another oilfield, having a major part on its territory.